TABLE OF CONTENTS
  1. INTRODUCTION
    1. Scope

  2. SCHEDULING
    1. Days of Operation
    2. Scheduling Instruction
    3. Instructional Fees
    4. Meetings

  3. DUTIES
    1. Solo Student Sign-In
    2. Safety Officer Delegate

  4. TRAINING
    1. Records
    2. Syllabus
      1. Solo Maneuvers Checklist
      2. Post Solo Maneuvers Checklist
      3. Publications
      4. Tests
    3. Solo Endorsements

LESC CFIG Kit

Revision 1.10 - updated June 4, 2006
Revision History

  1. REFERENCES
    1. Standard Operating Procedures
    2. Supervised Solo of Student Pilots
    3. New Student Welcome Kit
    4. Checklists
    5. Solo Maneuvers Checklist
    6. Standard American Soaring Signals
    7. Pre-Solo Written Test
    8. Basic Aircraft Radio Procedures and Operations Lesson Plan
    9. LESC Solo Checklist
    10. From Solo To License
    11. Post Solo Instruction Checklist
    12. Private Pilot Practical Preparation Letter

I have read and understand the items listed in this LESC CFIG Orientation Kit and will comply with the the directions held within.
LESC CFIG Candidate: Date:
I have made a dual flight and briefed the above signed LESC CFIG candidate on the items listed in this LESC CFIG Orientation Kit, reviewed thier logbook and license and recommend them for authorization as an LESC CFIG.
LESC Chief Instructor: Date:




  1. INTRODUCTION

  1. Scope
    This orientation kit is intended to help provide a consistent training program for use by all LESC CFIGs. This is a living document and will be updated regularly. All of LESC's instructors are also encouraged to review this document on a regular basis.

    Every prospective instructor will need to review this material and the above reference material before conducting a review with LESC's Chief Instructor. This review will consist of an "oral examination" of sorts to make sure prospective CFIG understands this material and answer any questions they may have as well as a dual flight with LESC's Chief Instructor. They will also be asked to provide thier logbook(s) showing flight experience and present thier Comercial Pilot Glider and accompaning Flight Instructor Glider Certificates for verification.

    Once the review has been completed, the prospective CFIG can then be recommended to the Board for consideration. Once authorized by the Board, only then will the new LESC CFIG be eligible for the LESC CFIG Dues Compensation Policy. After 90 days of inactivity, insructors will be removed from the Intructor Roster based on their instructional service and must either begin paying monthly dues or perform other services as deemed appropriate by the Board. To be reinstated, the CFIG needs to contact LESC’s Chief Instructor. This will give him the opportunity to review any policy and or SOP changes and determine if the CFIG’s service is required.

  • SCHEDULING

    1. Days of Operation
      LESC operates from 10:00AM to 6:00PM every Saturday and Sunday year round. LESC will be open on holidays as deemed appropriate. These will generally be where there is a three day weekend and the holiday falls on a Monday.

    2. Scheduling Instruction
      An instructional period shall be a 1.5 hour block of time which includes any instruction, be it air or ground time as well as preflight and debriefing. Students will schedule their own lessons. Special allowances will be made for things like Biannual Flight Reviews that require more time.

      Each instructor is responsible for their own scheduling. Instructors will signup for the days which they want to give lessons. It is desirable for both the students and the rest of the instructional staff if a CFIG can commit to covering a day on a regular basis. If the instructor does commit to a regular schedule, it is their responsibility to inform everyone when they must deviate from their schedule and to arrange for coverage by another authorized instructor on staff. To help facilitate scheduling of instructors, there is an online schedule that can be viewed at www.tak-off.com/LakeElsinore. Once authorized by the Board, instructors will be given the access information so that they can make changes to add themselves to the schedule.

    3. Instructional Fees
      The student will be charged $40.00 for each 1.5 hour block - 50.00 for a Flight Review, paid directly to the instructor. The instructor will insure that the student gets a good solid hour of direct instruction during this time.

    4. Meetings
      At the descretion of the Chief Instructor, the LESC Instructional Staff will hold meeting. Since we are at the airport on different days, the main purpose of this meeting is to have an open channel of discussion amongst the instructional staff. A number of topics are covered, and action items assigned as nessesary.

  • DUTIES

    1. Solo Student Sign-In
      As outlined in the Supervised Solo of Student Pilots letter forwarded to all SSAIs by our insurance company, Costello Insurance, all solo student flights must be under the supervision of an authorized LESC instructor. To meet these requirements, LESC has put in place a system where solo students must obtain authorization from an LESC CFIG prior to every flight. The Tow Pass system is used to document the process. The solo student needs to obytain a tow pass from the front desk with their name and the type of aircraft they will be using. It's then their responsibility to find an LESC CFIG to authorize the flight. The instructor will review the solo student's certificate to ensure there is an endorsement for the aircraft to be flown and that the certificate is still valid. They will also review the student's logbook ensuring that they have a valid solo endorsement and that they have flown the aircraft type in the past 90 days. The instructor will then brief the student on the weather conditions as well as review weight and balance data with the student to determine if the student is capable of safely conducting the flight. If the instructor is satisfied, they will then sign the Tow Pass for this flight only. If the student wishes to make subsequent flights, the process will be repeated.

    2. Safety Officer Delegate
      LESC CFIGs are the eyes and ears of the organization. They are delegated by the Safety Officer to act in his stead and have the same immediate authority as the Safety Officer. Any safety actions taken by the CFIG are valid pending review of the Safety Officer and any committee appointed to look into the action.

  • TRAINING

    1. Records
      Each student will have their own training file. This file is maintained on location and contains all documentation regarding any and all training received by the LESC Instructional Staff.

    2. Syllabus
      Rather than a formal syllabus, the LESC Instruction Staff uses the items listed below in conjunction with one another.

      1. Solo Maneuvers Checklist
        The Solo Maneuvers Checklist form lists all the maneuvers a student must demonstrate before soling. Each maneuver is graded on a scale of 1 to 5. The list need not be taught in order.

        • Preflight, surface ops, towline inspection.
          Students should be taught the proper use of the preflight checklist and explain it's importance. They will also be taught proper ground handling - were to pull/push the glider as well as how to clean a glider and prepare it for flight. Students should be instructed never to leave a glider unattended and to make sure the canopy is closed and latched. Instruct your student to always visually check the tow line before it is attached to the glider, looking for frays, cuts and knots in the rope.

        • Signals, ground and in flight.
          Students will be taught the Standard American Soaring Signals.

        • Assembly & disassembly.
          Use the 2-33 manual to show your student the 11 pins (7 inside and 4 outside) that are commonly removed when the glider is trailered. Make sure your student understands the need and duties of the 4 people required to assemble/disassemble a 2-33.

        • Pitch, roll, yaw, adverse yaw.
          Students will be taught smooth coordinated control of the glider in all 3 axis. Demonstrate pitch control and its relationship to speed control before teaching roll control. Once a student is comfortable with rolling the glider into a turn (while you control the rudder) introduce yaw and coordinated turns. Make sure your student can tell the difference between a slip and a skid. Explain the hazards of skids and the proper use of slips. Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

        • Precision turns.
          Students should be able to roll out within 5 degrees of a predetermined heading. Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

        • Point to point, speed to fly.
          Provide the student with the basic idea of speeding up in sink and slowing down in lift. Use the 5 MPH rule of thumb for every 100 FPM down over the standard 200 FPM of sink in the 2-33. Explain to the students that speed to fly is really an adjustment of the best L/D speed. This can be easily demonstrated using the aircraft polar.

        • Slow flight.
          Slow flight should be conducted at the verge of stall. If the student wants to take the aircraft up to stall to find that precise attitude and speed this is fine, provided they don't stall the aircraft for the remainder of the slow flight demonstration. Once a stable slow flight condition has been established, have the student make a 90 degree turn, remaining in slow flight. Caution the student on steepness of bank and the application of controls not to exceed the critical angle of attack (use of rudder to lift a falling wing rather than aileron). Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

        • Steep turns.
          Steep turns should be made at a bank angle between 45 and 60 degrees. Speed shouldn't deviate more than 10 MPH through the turn. Emphasize bank and pitch control via visual reference to the horizon. Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

        • Stall series, straight.
          Clearing turns must be made prior to initiating any stall maneuver. This can be accomplished with 2 steeply banked 90 degree turns (1 in each direction) or a single turn of 180 degrees or more. Have the student pull the nose of the glider up to maintain an attitude where their feet are on the horizon. Once the stall breaks, the student should immediately neutralize the controls to gain airspeed, then smoothly recover the aircraft without entering into a secondary stall.

        • Stall series, turning.
          The student must perform the same clearing maneuvers as mention above prior to attempting turning stalls. Have the student place the glider in a shallow bank (5 to 10 degrees is plenty). Then have the student pull the nose up to an attitude where their feet are on the horizon, all the while maintaining the bank angle. Once the stall breaks, the student should immediately neutralize the stick to gain airspeed and apply opposite ruder to stop rotation, then smoothly recover the aircraft without entering into a secondary stall.

        • Collision, wind shear, & wake turbulence avoidance.

        • DZ familiarization.
          This is a great way to begin training. On the student's first flight, have the tow pilot do a DZ familiarization tow where the glider is towed around the perimeter of the DZ. Point out the landmarks denoting the limits of the DZ to your student. As the student's training progresses, test their knowledge of the DZ by having them make maneuvers near the DZ boundaries, but give them instructions to stay clear of the DZ. The limits of the DZ are published in the Standard Operating Procedures.

        • Pre-launch checklist.
          Make sure the student uses the pre-launch checklist prior to every flight.
          Altimeter & Trim - set
          Belts - fastened (make sure they check the back seat as well).
          Ballast - as needed.
          Controls - freedom of movement and clear of obstructions.
          Cable - checked and connected.
          Canopy - closed, latched and verified.
          Divebrakes - closed and locked.
          Direction of wind - noted.
          Emergency procedures - (at a minimum) landing straight ahead below 50 feet, turns can be made above 100 feet and at 200 feet a return to the airport is possible.

        • Normal launch.
          Emphasize the importance of keeping the wings level and staying directly behind the tow plane. Have the student place the glider in a normal flight attitude and wait for the aircraft to become airborne. Don't let them yank the stick back to get off the ground too soon. Once airborne, the student should remain 2 - 5 feet off the ground (no higher) until the tow plane lifts off. The student should rise with the tow plane remaining in the high tow position.

        • Tow.
          Begin teaching the tow by letting the student fly for 10 seconds, then you take control regardless of how well they are doing. This will give them time to relax, then repeat the drill, gradually increasing the time the student fly's the airplane. Teach your student to maintain a constant position behind the tow plane with its landing gear on the horizon. Rather than fixating on the tow plane, have your student look beyond the tow plane to the horizon, keeping the tow plane in visual reference. Explain that you are 200 feet behind the tow plane and at normal towing speeds, that is about 1.5 seconds, so that when they see tow plane move, we will do the same thing in about 1.5 seconds as well. Emphasize that we need to maintain the same bank angle as the tow plane, particularly in turns. While turning, the tow rope should draw a straight line through the middle of the tow plane. Before releasing from the tow, the student will clear both left and right. A level or climbing right turn will be made upon release (look out for students who want to dive, or go straight).

        • Landing checklist, pattern speeds.
          Students are required to always using the pre-landing checklist.
          Traffic
          Wind direction and velocity
          Runway choice
          Gear down
          Spoilers
          Speed
          Students should have learned from reading Glider Basics that the pattern is flown at best L/D speed plus a safety factor. Given that, the minimum speed at which the pattern should be flown in a 2-33 is 60 MPH.

        • Traffic patterns.
          Students are taught standard traffic patterns with a 45 degree entry from the IP to Downwind, Base and Final legs. The standard pattern flown is listed in the Standard Operating Procedures.

        • TLAR technique.
          This is straight forward and taught straight from the Glider Basics text.

        • Normal Landing.
          Normal Landings will be made on runway 11R. Their are 3 sets of tires just past the intersection of the takeoff runway. The middle set of tires is your touchdown point. After landing, rollout will straight forward. Don't roll of the runway unless there are safety considerations.

        • Thermal technique.
          Describe the dynamics of a thermal to your student paying particular attention to both the lift and sink generated. Students should be made aware that it is easier to make adjustments to core a thermal if they can maintain a constant speed and bank angle. Emphasize that these should be maintained be visual reference to the horizon, not the instruments. To make the most advantage of the thermals energy, the glider should be flown at minimum sink speed. Make sure the student understands that as bank angle increases so does the minimum sink speed.

        • Ridge technique.
          Describe the dynamics of a ridge lift to your student paying particular attention to the location both the lift and sink generated. Emphasize all turns are made away from the ridge and faster gliders should pass slower gliders between the slower glider and the ridge. Since there is obviously wind, make sure the student is aware of the wind direction and how it will affect his return to the airport.

        • Wave technique.
          Describe the dynamics of a wave to your student paying particular attention to both the lift and sink generated.

        • Demo spin.
          While not required by the FAA, all LESC students are required to experience a spin before they solo. Most importantly, the student should recognize the conditions that lead to a spin. Secondly, we don't want them to panic if they ever are in a spin, so make this fun. Since we have a victor airway that runs down the middle of the valley, spins need to be conducted back over the Ortega's. This will necessitate a high tow, so make the most of it - do several spins. Make sure the student understands that while you have to force a 2-33 to spin dual, it spins rather nicely solo!

        • X wind launch, wing down.
          With a wing down launch the student should apply full sick and rudder in order to pickup the down wing quickly. Once the wing is up, care should be taken to maintain position behind the tow plane and not allow the glider to drift down wind.

        • Tailwind landing.
          First, students should be made aware that when possible landing into the wind is preferable to a downwind landing. Make sure the student is aware that after touchdown control authority will be lost at a higher ground speed, necessitating good control of the glider and a quick stop. There is a tendency for the student to want to slow the glider down since their eye are telling them they are going too fast. Watch to make sure they maintain their airspeed.

        • Slips to landing.
          It works best to introduce students to slips while at altitude. Get them used to the way the glider feels and sounds. get them to where they can smoothly transition form normal flight to a slip and back to normal flight. Once they are familiar with slips, then have them do it on final. Watch to make sure they don't stall the glider.

        • Emergency landing options.
          Early in a student's training, have them look back at the airport as you fly the takeoff and ask them to identify landable areas. It won't be long until one day there will be another airplane in the runway, or the glider is not on the glider slope, or the winds are just too high. Before this happens explain to the student how we can land the glider in the areas they have identified and show them other options they may not have noticed.

        • Full spoiler landing.
          After a student has mastered normal landings and is comfortable with TLAR, it's time to lock the spoilers open on them when they do their pre-landing checklist. As the student is coming in to land, ask them if you look too high or too low. find out when they plan on making the turn to base and final. Chances are they will do fine, but be ready to offer timely advice on how to get back.

        • No spoiler landing.
          After a student has made a few slips to landing, it's time to "jam the spoilers closed" when they do their pre-landing checklist. Glide path control should be handled by slipping the glider. The pattern can be extended if need be, but the student should stay pretty close to a normal approach.

        • Rope Break.
          The student's first action should be to drop the nose to maintain airspeed. Then a coordinated 45 degree turn back to the airport should be executed. A normal landing (probably down wind) will then be made.

        • Wave Off.
          Students should readily notice the wing wag of the tow plane and release. Special vigilance should be given to avoid the tow rope and giving the tow plane the room it needs (they're probably going to turn back to the airport).

        • Rudder Wag "something's wrong".
          This is best accomlished before giving the Wave Off. Some "old time" students will release thinking this is a wave off. The first thing the student should check is if the spoilers are deployed, then a systematic check of other systems.

        • Box Wake.
          The student should be able to demonstrate control of the glider on tow by boxing the wake. The box is started by transitioning from the high to low tow position (the horizontal stabilizer will be even with the wing struts on a Callaire), then back up to high tow. The student will then smoothly maneuver the glider to one side or the other until the tail wheel of the tow plane is visually outside the main wheel. The student will then drop to the low tow position while remaining in the outside of the wake. Once in the low tow position, the student will maneuver to the other side of the wake so that the tail wheel is again outside the other main wheel. Now the student can come up to the high tow position while remaining outside the wake. Now it's a simple as easing control pressure to allow the glider to return to the normal high tow position.

        • Over wire pattern.
          If the winds are more than 10 MPH favoring runway 29L, it's time for an over the wires pattern. This is a conventional left hand pattern with the base leg flown directly over the wires on Corydon. Your touch down point is still the middle set of tires. Have no fear, someone will bring the car out and drag you back. Take note, it's not very noticeable but the runway does run down hill towards the lake.

        • Aircraft Radio Procedures.
          It's a good idea to get the student using the radio early in their training. That way they it's not as big a distraction. The Basic Aircraft Radio Procedures and Operations Lesson Plan will help teach the student the proper radio procedures for use at Elsinore.

        • Silent Pattern
          The Silent Patter is the last flight before solo. Basically, the instructor is a fly on the wall and shouldn't have to say anything. If you do, it's time for some more dual instruction before trying another Silent Pattern.

        • First Solo.
          This is the flight you've all been waiting for. Make sure all the paperwork is filled out prior to sending the student off on their first solo.

      2. Post Solo Maneuvers Checklist
        There is also a Post Solo Maneuvers Checklist that is used for solo endorsements and license upgrades.

        • Rope Break.
          The student's first action should be to drop the nose to maintain airspeed. Then a coordinated 45 degree turn back to the airport should be executed. A normal landing (probably down wind) will then be made.

        • Wave Off.
          Students should readily notice the wing wag of the tow plane and release. Special vigilance should be given to avoid the tow rope and giving the tow plane the room it needs (they're probably going to turn back to the airport).

        • Box Wake.
          The student should be able to demonstrate control of the glider on tow by boxing the wake. The box is started by transitioning from the high to low tow position (the horizontal stabilizer will be even with the wing struts on a Callaire), then back up to high tow. The student will then smoothly maneuver the glider to one side or the other until the tail wheel of the tow plane is visually outside the main wheel. The student will then drop to the low tow position while remaining in the outside of the wake. Once in the low tow position, the student will maneuver to the other side of the wake so that the tail wheel is again outside the other main wheel. Now the student can come up to the high tow position while remaining outside the wake. Now it's a simple as easing control pressure to allow the glider to return to the normal high tow position.

        • Slack Line Drill.
          Slack line recovery can be practiced on many flights, especially in the afternoon when lift is strong and slack line is likely to occur. Since slack line occurs anytime the glider is traveling faster than the tow plane, the main objective is to safely slow down the glider and not break the rope. This can be accomplished by yawing the gliders nose away from the tow plane and in extreme circumstances, the application of spoilers is appropriate. Keep in mind that anytime the belly of the slack gets even with the cockpit, you must release to maintain safety.

        • Slow Flight.
          Slow flight should be conducted at the verge of stall. If the student wants to take the aircraft up to stall to find that precise attitude and speed this is fine, provided they don't stall the aircraft for the remainder of the slow flight demonstration. Once a stable slow flight condition has been established, have the student make a 90 degree turn, remaining in slow flight. Caution the student on steepness of bank and the application of controls not to exceed the critical angle of attack (use of rudder to lift a falling wing rather than aileron). Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

        • Stall Series, straight.
          Clearing turns must be made prior to initiating any stall maneuver. This can be accomplished with 2 steeply banked 90 degree turns (1 in each direction) or a single turn of 180 degrees or more. Have the student pull the nose of the glider up to maintain an attitude where their feet are on the horizon. Once the stall breaks, the student should immediately neutralize the controls to gain airspeed, then smoothly recover the aircraft without entering into a secondary stall.

        • Stall Series, turning.
          The student must perform the same clearing maneuvers as mention above prior to attempting turning stalls. Have the student place the glider in a shallow bank (5 to 10 degrees is plenty). Then have the student pull the nose up to an attitude where their feet are on the horizon, all the while maintaining the bank angle. Once the stall breaks, the student should immediately neutralize the stick to gain airspeed and apply opposite ruder to stop rotation, then smoothly recover the aircraft without entering into a secondary stall.

        • Stall Series, straight with spoilers.
          This is the same as straight stalls without spoilers with the exception that the glider will stall at a higher speed and the student will need to close the spoilers upon the break of the stall.

        • Stall Series, turning with spoilers.
          This is the same as turning stalls without spoilers with the exception that the glider will stall at a higher speed and the student will need to close the spoilers upon the break of the stall.

        • Steep Turns.
          Steep turns should be made at a bank angle between 45 and 60 degrees. Speed shouldn't deviate more than 5 MPH through the turn. Emphasize bank and pitch control via visual reference to the horizon. Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

        • Turning Slips in pattern.
          At this stage the student should have already done slipping patterns so a slipping turn should be no problem. Be watchfull for inproper rudder useage that could lead to skids / spins. Speed control should also be emphasized.

        • Accuracy Landing.
          The purpose of this exercise is to simulte an off field landing. Low approach angles and floating into the landing area arenot acceptable and will not be taught. The student will touch down smoothly within the designated landing area, with no appreciable drift, and with the longitudinal axis aligned with the desired landing path, stopping short of and within 200 feet of a designated point.

        • Solo Checkride, revalidation (30 or 45 day).
          Durring any solo checkride or revalidation, the instructor will take the student through all the maneuvers required for the Practical Exam.

        • C Badge thermal, ridge & wave practice.
          The student will demonstrate in solo flight the ability to soar at least 60 minutes in duration from release of a 2000 foot tow (add 1.5 minutes for each 100 feet above 2000).

        • C Badge simulated off field approach, no altimeter.
          Durring a dual flight accompanied by an SSA Instructor, the student will demonstrate a simulated off-field approach without reference to the altimeter by either covering the altimeter, or adjusting the altimeter so that field elevation cannot be determined.

        • C Badge accuracy landing from approach.
          Durring a dual flight accompanied by an SSA Instructor, the student will perfrom an accuracy landing from the approach, touching down and coming to a complete stop within an area no greater than 500 feet in length.

        • Bronze Solo accuracy Spot Landings.
          The student will perform at least 3 solo spot landings witnessed by an SSA Instructor. The accuracy and distance parameters established should be based on glider performance data, current winds, runway surface and density altitude. As a guideline, a maximum distance of 400 feet would be acceptable for a 2-33.

        • Bronze Accuracy Landings, no altimeter.
          Durring a dual flights accompanied by an SSA Instructor, the student will perfom at least 2 accuracy landings made without reference to the altimeter to simulate off-field landings by either covering the altimeter, or adjusting the altimeter so that field elevation cannot be determined.

      3. Publications
        Students are required to read and perform the chapter tests in both Glider Basics and the Glider Flying Handbook. All written tests from the Glider Basics text will be compelted before the tenth instructional flight and reviewed by the CFIG prior to being placed in the student's file. If a student holds a Private Pilot Airplane or higher rating, they will use Transition To Gliders in place of Glider Basics.

      4. Tests
        All written tests from the Glider Basics text will be completed before the tenth instructional flight.

        The Pre Solo Written Exam will be administered by the student's primary CFIG prior to first solo. The CFIG will grade the test and provide instruction in those areas the student is deficient. The test will then be placed in the student's training file.

    3. Solo Endorsements
      Prior to a student's first solo, the student and instructor will fill out the LESC Solo Checklist and place it in the student's training file. This is one last cross check to make sure everything has been covered prior to solo. The student will then receive a logbook endorsement for 1 solo flight only.

      After the student's first solo they will receive the From Solo to License letter and pick up a copy of After Solo to help them through the next phases of their training. The student will have to return to dual training until such a time as the CFIG makes another logbook entry authorizing them for 5 solo flights or 30 days, which ever comes first. The process is repeated with the subsequent solo authorization periods of 30 days (not restricted by number of flights) followed by a 45 day solo endorsement.

      With each 45 day solo endorsement, the student will receive a homework assignment that must be completed prior to subsequent 45 day solo endorsements. These homework assignments are non-flying tasks such as Pseudo Adiabatic Charts or Cross Country Profiles and are targeted to help the student achieve thier Private Pilot rating.

      When the student receives their second 45 day solo endorsement, an entry is made in their training file and they are made aware that they will be required to bring passing written test results in order to receive subsequent 45 day solo endorsements. There are exceptions to this rule such as students who are too young to obtain their Private Pilot Rating.